*Clostridium difficile (klah-STRID-ee-um DIFF-i-seel)
C. difficile infections are at an all-time high.
C. difficile causes many Americans to become sick or die.
- C. difficile infections are linked to 14,000 deaths in the US each year.
- Deaths related to C. difficile increased 400% between 2000 and 2007, due in part to a stronger germ strain.
- Most C. difficile infections are connected with receiving medical care.
- Almost half of infections occur in people younger than 65, but more than 90% of deaths occur in people 65 and older.
- Infection risk generally increases with age; children are at lower risk.
- About 25% of C. difficile infections first show symptoms in hospital patients; 75% first show in nursing home patients or in people recently cared for in doctors' offices and clinics.
C. difficile germs move with patients from one health care facility to another, infecting other patients.
- Half of all hospital patients with C. difficile infections have the infection when admitted and may spread it within the facility.
- The most dangerous source of spread to others is patients with diarrhea.
- Unnecessary antibiotic use in patients at one facility may increase the spread of C. difficile in another facility when patients transfer.
- When a patient transfers, health care providers are not always told that the patient has or recently had a C. difficile infection, so they may not take the right actions to prevent spread.
C. difficile infections can be prevented.
- Early results from hospital prevention projects show 20% fewer C. difficile infections in less than 2 years with infection prevention and control measures.
- England decreased C. difficile infection rates in hospitals by more than half in 3 years by using infection control recommendations and more careful antibiotic use.
1. Prescribe and use antibiotics carefully. About 50% of all antibiotics given are not needed, unnecessarily raising the risk of C. difficile infections.
2. Test for C. difficile when patients have diarrhea while on antibiotics or within several months of taking them.
3. Isolate patients with C. difficile immediately.
4. Wear gloves and gowns when treating patients with C. difficile, even during short visits. Hand sanitizer does not kill C. difficile, and hand washing may not be sufficient.
5. Clean room surfaces with bleach or another EPA-approved, spore-killing disinfectant after a patient with C. difficile has been treated there.
6. When a patient transfers, notify the new facility if the patient has a C. difficile infection.
Source: Center for Disease Control at: http://www.cdc.gov/vitalsigns/HAI/